Chang’E 4 is the first mission to the far side of the Moon and consists of a lander, a rover, and a relay spacecraft. Lander and rover were launched at 18:23 UTC on December 7, 2018 and landed in the von Kármán crater at 02:26 UTC on January 3, 2019. Here we describe the Lunar Lander Neutron & Dosimetry experiment (LND) which is part of the Chang’E 4 Lander scientific payload. Its chief scientific goal is to obtain first active dosimetric measurements on the surface of the Moon. LND also provides observations of fast neutrons which are a result of the interaction of high-energy particle radiation with the lunar regolith and of their thermalized counterpart, thermal neutrons, which are a sensitive indicator of subsurface water content.